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标题:职称英语考试专家例题分析—卫生AB阅读理解


职称英语考试专家例题分析—卫生AB阅读理解
 
  

2005年卫生B/A阅读理解考题分析: 
 More Than a Ride to School
  The National Education Association claims,“The school bus is a mirror of the community.”
  They further add that,unfortunately,what appears on the exterior does not always reflect the reality of a chosen community.They are right—sometimes it reflects more! Just ask Liesl Denson.Riding the schoo1 bus has been more than a ride to school for Liesl.
  Bruce Hardy, schoo1 bus driver for A1thouse Bus Company has been Liesl’s bus driver since Kindergarten. Last year when Liesl’s family moved to Parkesburg,knowing her bus went by her new residence,she requested to ride the same bus.
  This year Liesl is a senior and will enjoy her last year riding the bus.She says,“It’s been a great ride so far! My bus driver is so cool and has always been a good friend and a good listener. Sometimes when you’re a child adults do not think that what you have to say is important ML Hardy always listens to what you have to say and makes you feel important.” Her friends Ashley Batista and Amanda Wolfe agree.
  Bruce Hardy has been making Octorara students feel special since 1975. This year he will celebrate 30 years working for Althouse Bus Company.Larry Althouse,president of the company acknowledges Bruce Hardy’s outstanding record:“You do not come by employees like Bruce these days.He has never missed a day of work and has a perfect driving record.He was recognized in 2000 by the Pennsylvania School Bus Association for driving 350,000 accident free miles.Hardy’s reputation is made further evident through the relationships he has made with the students that ride his bus.”
  Althouse further adds,”Althouse Bus Company was established 70 years ago and has been providing quality transportation ever since. My grandfather started the business with one bus.
  Althouse Bus Company is delighted to have the opportunity to bring distinctive and safe service to our local school and community and looks forward to continuing to provide quality service for many more years to come.”
  Three generations of business is not all the company has enjoyed Thanks to drivers like Bruce Hardy,they have been building relationships through generations.Liesl’s mother Carol also enjoys fond memories of riding Bruce Hardy’s bus to the Octorara School District.
  1 综合/理工/卫生: The word “mirror” in the first line could be best replaced by___.
  A  “vehicle”.
  B  “device”
  C  “need”.
  D  “reflection”.
  2 综合.How long has Bruce Hardy has been working for Althouse Bus Company ?/理工/卫生: Bruce Hardy has been working with Althouse Bus Company ___.
  A  for 30 years.
  B  for 70 years
  C  since last year.
  D  since 2000.
  3综合/理工/卫生: Which of the following statements is NOT true of Bruce Hardy?
  综合A. He is cool.     理工/卫生: A He is popular with his passengers.
     B. He is a good friend.      B He has never missed a day of work.
     C. He is impatient.                       C He is an impatient person.
  综合/理工/卫生. He has driven 350.000 accident free miles.         
  4综合: Who found Alhouse Bus Transportation? 理工/卫生:Althouse Bus Company was founded by ___.
  A Larry Althouse.
  B Althouse’s grandfather.
  C Liesl’s mother.
  D Ashley Batista.
  5综合:What has Althouse Bus Company been mainly aiming at? 理工/卫生:Althouse Bus Company pays much attention to ___.
  综合:A. Making as much money as possible 理工/卫生: A  employing young drivers
   B. Building up its fame        B  running quality schools.
   C. Developing its business       C providing free driving lessons.
  综合. Providing the local community with quality service
  理工/卫生  building sound relationships.答案与解析:
  1. 文章标题分析: More Than a Ride to School .
  文章标题所揭示的内容不够清晰, 所以关注文章开头的相关内容:
  (第一段)The National Education Association claims,“The school bus is a mirror of the community.”
  They further add that,unfortunately,what appears on the exterior (外部) does not always reflect the reality of a chosen community.They are right—sometimes it reflects more! Just ask Liesl Denson.Riding the schoo1 bus has been more than a ride to school for Liesl.
  划线句的内容(观点句)与文章标题内容呼应, 这表明该划线句就是文章的主题句, 但是该句并没有揭示更多的关于文章主题的信息, 所以关注划线句前面的内容: The National Education Association claims,“The school bus is a mirror of the community.” 该句说全国教育协会认为“校车是社会的一面镜子”。接着往下看: They further add that,unfortunately,what appears on the exterior (外部) does not always reflect the reality现实 of a chosen拣过的;精选的 community.该句说:“他们继续补充说‘不幸的是, 外部呈现的东西并不总是反映出了一个经过挑选后出现的社会的真实情况’”。接着往下看: They are right—sometimes it reflects more!该句说“他们是正确的, 有时它反映出更多的东西” 。 结合前面的句子判断, 这里的it很可能就是指“The school bus”。刚才我们看到的句子中明显地反应了作者的观点—作者赞同全国教育协会的观点, 认为校车是一面镜子, 能反映社会, 这是一篇论述文。
  2. 直接解题。
  基本解题思路: 利用题干中的核心词/特征词作为答案线索, 在文章中找到答案相关句, 对比答案相关句的内容和问题句及被选项的内容判断答案。
  提示: 要注意观察问题句在语法结构和用词上的特点; 要注意分辨被选项之间在语意上, 在用词上, 在结构上的相互关系, 因为答案往往出自有关系的选项中。
  1 综合/理工/卫生: The word “mirror” in the first line could be best replaced by___.
  综合/理工/卫生A  “vehicle”.
  综合/理工/卫生B  “device”
  综合: C. company       理工/卫生C  “need”.
  综合/理工/卫生D  “reflection”.
  1.D. 分析:综合/理工/卫生考题中对于该考点问题设置形式相同, 只是在单个被选项上出现了一些改动.问题问及文章中某个词的含义, 我们首先找到这个词在文章中的位置: The National Education Association claims,“The school bus is a mirror of the community.”其实这个词所在的句子, 以及这个句子所在的上下文的内容, 刚才我们都已经了解了: 文章刚才在分析文章标题时, 已经了解到了文章的主题: 校车反应社会生活, 根据这个主题判断mirror 的近义词应该是D(反映).
  考点: 考察文章主题词
  2 综合.How long has Bruce Hardy has been working for Althouse Bus Company ?/理工/卫生: Bruce Hardy has been working with Althouse Bus Company ___.
  A  for 30 years.
  B  for 70 years
  C  since last year.
  D  since 2000.
  2. A. 分析:综合类问题问“Bruce Hardy为Althouse公共汽车公司工作了多长时间了? 理工/卫生类也是问及相同的内容(work for = work with 为…工作), 不同的是综合考题中出现的是疑问句的结构, 而理工/卫生类考题中出现的是陈述句。 利用题干中的特征词Bruce Hardy和Althouse Bus Company作为答案线索, 同时关注涉及到年龄的数字, 这样找到答案相关句:(第2段) Bruce Hardy, schoo1 bus driver for A1thouse Bus Company has been Liesl’s bus driver since Kindergarten.该句说“Bruce Hard自从Liesl上幼儿园起就是Althouse公司的校车司机”, 这个句子没有揭示答案, 所以继续看后面的句子: (第4段) Bruce Hardy has been making Octorara students feel special since 1975. This year he (he指代Bruce Hardy)will celebrate 30 years working for Althouse Bus Company.该句明确地说明了Bruce Hardy已经为Althouse公共汽车公司工作了30年, 所以A是答案。
  3综合/理工/卫生: Which of the following statements is NOT true of Bruce Hardy?
  综合A. He is cool.    理工/卫生: A He is popular with his passengers.
   B. He is a good friend.    B He has never missed a day of work.
   C. He is impatient.                         C He is an impatient person.
  综合/理工/卫生:D. He has driven 350.000 accident free miles.  
  3. C。 分析:  综合/理工/卫生对于该考点问题设置形式一致, 但是综合类考题中的被选项在结构上更简单.问题问“下列哪个关于Bruce Hardy的说法不正确?”利用被选项的特征: 综合类考题中的前三个选项都涉及到Bruce Hardy这个人的个性, 理工类考题中也有两个被选项涉及到Bruce Hardy的个性, 所以首先关注文章中涉及到Bruce Hardy的个性描述的句子, 这样找到答案相关句: (第3段)This year Liesl is a senior and will enjoy her last year riding the bus.She says,“It’s been a great ride so far! My bus driver is so cool and has always been a good friend and a good listener. 根据前句内容判断My bus driver指的是“Liesl”的司机, 为了进一步确认“Liesl”的司机是否就是问题句中提到的Bruce Hardy, 所以看前文, 这样在第2段中看到: Bruce Hardy, schoo1 bus driver for A1thouse Bus Company has been Liesl’s bus driver since Kindergarten 该句内容表明Bruce Hardy就是“Liesl”的司机, 这样再关注我们刚开始找到的答案相关句(划线句), 该句说“Bruce Hardy是一个好的听众”, 因此可以说Bruce Hardy有很好的耐心, 因此判断C不正确。
     
  4综合: Who found Alhouse Bus Transportation? 理工/卫生:Althouse Bus Company was founded by ___.
  A Larry Althouse.
  B Althouse’s grandfather.
  C Liesl’s mother.
  D Ashley Batista.
  4.B. 分析: 综合类和理工/卫生类的考题涉及到同样的内容: 它们都在询问“是谁建立了Alhouse汽车公司”。 所不同的是综合类考题中的问题用的是疑问句, 而理工和卫生类的考题用的是陈述句的。 提示: 问题句表达形式的改变是考题相对于练习题变化的常见方式。A和B都提到了Althouse, 所以首先利用Althouse这个特征词作为答案线索, 这样找到答案相关句:
  …Bruce Hardy, schoo1 bus driver for A1thouse Bus Company has been Liesl’s bus driver since
  Kindergarten…. 该句没有提到Alhouse公司建立的事情, 所以接着看下面的句子
  . This year he will celebrate 30 years working for Althouse Bus Company.该句也没有提到Alhouse公司建立的事情, Larry Althouse,president of the company acknowledges Bruce Hardy’s outstanding record:“You do not come by employees like Bruce these days.…该句也没有提到Alhouse公司建立的事情
  Althouse further adds,”Althouse Bus Company was established 70 years ago and has been
  providing quality transportation ever since.该句中出现了与问题句的谓语动词(founded/建立)呼应的词语established(建立) , 但是该句没有说是睡建立的公司, 而接下来的一句说: My grandfather started the business with one bus(我的祖父创建这家公司(Althouse汽车公司)的时候只有一辆公共汽车).显然该句直接地回答了问题, 判断B是答案.
  5综合:What has Althouse Bus Company been mainly aiming at? 理工/卫生:Althouse Bus Company pays much attention to ___.
  综合:A. Making as much money as possible 理工/卫生: A  employing young drivers
   B. Building up its fame        B  running quality schools.
   C. Developing its business       C providing free driving lessons.
  综合:D. Providing the local community with quality service
  理工/卫生:D  building sound relationships.
  5. D。 分析: 综合与理工/卫生所问的问题相同, 但是采取了语义相近的短语结构: aim at = pay attention to (致力于/关注), 利用题干中出现的核心结构aim at(pay attention to)作为答案线索, 这样找到答案相关句: Althouse Bus Company is delighted to have the opportunity to bring distinctive and safe service to our local school and community and looks forward to (与aim at(pay attention to)含义接近)continuing to provide quality service for many more years to come.”该句中的划线结构说“Althouse汽车公司期望在将来的许多年里还能继续提供优质的服务。”, 根据这个内容直接判断综合考题中D是答案, 而理工卫生考题中也是D(建立良好的关系: 因为提供优质服务一定会带来良好的相互关系的建立)是答案。
Passage 2
  Sleepwalking

  Not all sleep is the same every night. We experience some deep, quiet sleep and some active sleep, which is when dreams happen. You might think sleepwalking would happen during active sleep, but a person isn’t physically active during active sleep. Sleepwalking usually happens in the first few hours of sleep in the stage called slow-wave or deep sleep.
  Now all sleepwalkers actually walk. Some simply sit up or stand in bed or act like they’re awake when in fact, they’re sleep! Most, however, do get up and move around for a few seconds or for as long as half an hour.
  Sleepwalkers’ eyes are open, but they don’t see the same way they do when they’re awake and often think they’re in different rooms of the house or different places altogether. Sleepwalkers tend to go back to bed on their own and they won’t remember it in the morning.
  Researchers estimated that about 15% of kids sleepwalk regularly. Sleepwalking may run in families and sometimes occurs when a person is sick, has a fever, is not getting enough sleep, or is stressed.
  If sleepwalking occurs frequently, every night or so, it’s a good idea for your mom or dad to take you to see your doctor. But occasional sleepwalking generally isn’t something to worry about, although it may look funny or even scary for the people who see a sleepwalker in action.
  Although occasional sleepwalking isn’t a big deal, it’s important, of course, that the person is kept safe, precautions should be taken so the person is less likely to fall down, run into something, or walk out the front door while sleepwalking.

  1. Sleepwalking usually occurs ___.
  A. during deep sleep
  B. during active sleep
  C. during dreams
  D. during quiet hours

  2. Which is true of most sleepwalkers?
  A. they simply sit up
  B. they simply stand in bed
  C. they act like they’re awake when asleep
  D. they get up and walk for some time

  3. Sleepwalkers usually go back to bed ___.
  A. after waking up
  B. after being woken up
  C. by themselves
  D. with the help of others

  4. You’d better go and see a doctor if you ___.
  A come across sleepwalking often
  B have never experienced sleepwalking
  C sleepwalk occasionally
  D sleepwalk frequently

  5. Precautions should be taken to ___.
  A. prevent people from sleepwalking
  B. keep sleepwalkers safe
  C. avoid running into sleepwalkers
  D. ensure the safety of people asleep

答案与解析:
  1. 文章标题分析:Sleepwalking梦游病
  文章将围绕梦游病进行介绍, 可能会在内容上涉及到造成梦游病的病因,梦游病的病症表现, 以及治疗梦游病的方法。

  2. 直接解题:
  1  Sleepwalking usually occurs ___.
  A   during deep sleep
  B   during active sleep
  C   during dreams
  D   during quiet hours
  1. A。 分析: 问题问“梦游病通常在什么时候发生?”被选项中有两个选项涉及到sleep(睡眠), 所以首先利用sleep和问题句中的核心词Sleepwalking共同作为答案线索, 这样找到答案相关句:
  (第一段)Not all sleep is the same every night. We experience some deep, quiet sleep and some active sleep, which is when dreams happen. 这两个句子中都没有出现“Sleepwalking” , 所以暂时不看。 下面的两个句子中两个线索词都出现了, 所以重点关注: You might think sleepwalking would happen during active sleep, but a person isn’t physically active during active sleep. 该句说“你可能认为梦游发生在睡眠活跃的阶段, 但是处于睡眠活跃阶段时, 人的身体并不活跃”。该句暗示B很可能不是答案。接着看下面的句子:  Sleepwalking usually happens in the first few hours of sleep in the stage called slow-wave or deep sleep.该句说“梦游病通常发生在被称为慢波睡眠或深层睡眠阶段的前几个小时内”, 因此判断A是答案。
  语法考点: 考察起定语作用的过去分词结构。
  
  2. Which is true of most sleepwalkers?
  A   they simply sit up
  B   they simply stand in bed
  C   they act like they’re awake when asleep
  D    they get up and walk for some time
  2. D。分析: 问题问“有关大多数的梦游病患者的说法下列哪一种是正确的?”题干中出现了修饰词most,可以利用这个词作为答案线索, 同时注意到被选项都涉及到描述具体动作的行为动词/动词短语, 因此重点关注文章中出现动作描述的句子, 这样找到答案相关句:
  (第2段)Now all sleepwalkers actually walk. Some simply sit up or stand in bed or act like they’re awake when in fact, they’re sleep! Most, however, do get up and move around for a few seconds or for as long as half an hour. 该句中出现了most, 而且还出现了具体的行为动词, 因此判断该句很可能就是直接答案相关句。 该句说“然而大多数人的确会起床下地行走几秒钟, 有的甚至达到半个小时”,代词most与前句中的代词 some 指代同类人, 它们都指代前面的sleepwalkers, 因此判断D是答案。
  考点:考察代词的指代内容。
  
  3. Sleepwalkers usually go back to bed ___.
  A   after waking up
  B   after being woken up
  C    by themselves
  D    with the help of others
  3. C. 分析:问题说“梦游病患者通常返回到床上___.”被选项中有两个选项(A和B)是结构相似的时间状语结构, 而C和D都是表示“方式”的状语结构, 因此推断A和B中可能出答案; C和D中可能出答案。 利用题干中的核心结构“go back to bed”作为答案线索, 同时关注文章中出现的时间和方式状语结构, 这样找到答案相关句:
  (第3段)….Sleepwalkers tend to go back to bed on their own and they won’t remember it in the morning.该句中出现了“go back to bed”, 而且还出现了方式状语结构on their own, 因此判断该句很可能就是直接答案相关句. 该句说“梦游病患者往往(与问题句中的“usually”呼应)自己回到床上, 而他们在早晨却并不记得他们在夜里梦游的事情”, 因此判断C是答案。
  考点: 考察近义短语结构: by oneself = for oneself = on one’s own 独自地, 凭自己力量
  
  4.You’d better go and see a doctor if you ___.
  A come across sleepwalking often
  B have never experienced sleepwalking
  C sleepwalk occasionally
  D sleepwalk frequently
  4. D.分析: 问题说“如果…, 你最好去看医生.”该题可以借助常识直接判断D(经常性地梦游)是答案。 该题也可以借助文章中相关句来判断答案, 利用问题句中出现的新信息结构(核心结构)“go and see a doctor”作为答案线索, 这样找到答案相关句:
  (第5段)If sleepwalking occurs frequently, every night or so, it’s a good idea for your mom or dad to take you to see your doctor. 该句说“如果梦游发生频繁, 比如大约每晚都发生, 你应该让你的爸爸或妈妈带你去看医生。”, 因此判断D是答案。
  考点: 形式主语所在的句子结构。

  5. Precautions should be taken to ___.
  A   prevent people from sleepwalking
  B   keep sleepwalkers safe
  C   avoid running into sleepwalkers
  D   ensure the safety of people asleep/ who is asleep/ sleeping people
  5. B. 分析: 问题句说“应该采取预防措施从而…”.(take –adopt采取). 该题可以借助常识判断B(使梦游者安全)是答案. 也可以借助文章中的相关语句判断答案: 利用问题句中出现的核心词(主语) Precautions作为答案线索, 这样找到答案相关句: Although occasional sleepwalking isn’t a big deal, it’s important, of course, that the person is kept safe, precautions should be taken so the person is less likely to fall down, run into something, or walk out the front door while sleepwalking.该句中的划线结构说“应该采取预防措施, 这样当梦游病患者在梦游的时候就不会跌倒, 撞到什么东西上, 或走出大门外。”, 根据部分内容判断B是答案。


  考点: 考察考生的推断能力
2007年职称外语等级考试时间:2007年6月30日
职称英语2007年课程将于07年版教材出版后推出!

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