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标题:2003年职称英语等级考试试题及答案理工类B级


2003年职称英语等级考试试题及答案理工类B级

第一部分:词汇选项(第1—15题,每题1分,共15分)
       下面共有15个句子,每个句子中均有1个词或短语画有底横线,请从每个句子后面所给的4个选项中选择1个与画线部分意义最相近的词或短语。答案一律涂在答题卡相应的位置上。
 
1.         The high-speed trains can have a major impact on travel preferences.
A     force                     B     influence
C     surprise                 D     power
 
2.         Can you follow the plot?
A     change                  B     investigate
C     write                     D     understand
 
3.         Even in a highly modernized country, manual work is still needed.
A     physical                 B     mental
C     natural                   D     hard
 
4.         In the latter case the outcome can be serious indeed.
A     result                    B     judgment
C     decision                 D     event
 
5.         Norman Blamey is an artist of deep convictions.
A     statements             B     beliefs
C     suggestions            D     claims
 
6.         Up to now, the work has been easy.
A     So                        B     So long
C     So that                  D     So far
 
7.         The report advocated setting up day training colleges.
A     supposed               B     excited
C     suggested                     D     discussed
 
8.         Accordingly, a number of other methods have been employed.
A     Therefore                     B     Afterwards
C     However               D     Furthermore
 
9.         The outlook from the top of the mountain is breathtaking.
A     view                            B     sight
C     look                      D     point
 
10.     Our lives are intimately bound up with theirs.
A     tensely                  B     nearly
C     carefully                D     closely
 
11.     The union representative put across her argument very effectively.
A     explained               B     invented
C     considered             D     accepted
 
12.     He talks tough but has a tender heart.
A     heavy                    B     strong
C     kind                      D     wild
 
13.     It is no use debating the relative merITS of this policy.
A     making                  B     taking
C     discussing             D     expecting
 
14.     Our statistics show that we consume all that we are capable of producing.
A     waste                    B     buy
C     use                       D     sell
 
15.     The fuel tanks had a capacity of 140 liters.
A     function                B     ability
C     power                   D     volume
 
第2部分:阅读判断(第16—22题,每题1分,共7分)
       阅读下面这篇短文,短文后列出了7个句子,请根据短文的内容对每个句子做出判断。如果该句提供的是正确信息,请在答题卡上把A涂黑;如果该句提供的是错误信息,请在答题卡上把B涂黑;如果该句的信息文章中没有提及,请在答题卡上把C涂黑。
 

The Threat to Kiribati

 
       The people of Kiribati are afraid that one day in the not-too-distant future, their country will disappear from the face of the earth- literally. Several times this year, the Pacific island nation has been flooded by a sudden high tide. These tides, which swept across the island and destroyed houses, came when there was neither wind nor rain. “This never happened before,” say the older citizens of Kiribati.
       What is causing these mysterious high tides? The answer may well be global warming. When fuels like oil and coal are being burned, pollutants (污染物)are released; these pollutants trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere. Warmer temperatures cause water to expand and also create more water by melting glaciers (冰川 )and polar (极地的) ice caps.
       If the trend continues, scientists say, many countries will suffer, Bangladesh, for example, might lose one-fifth of its land. The coral (珊瑚) island nations of the Pacific, like Kiribati and the Marshall Islands, however, would face an even worse fate – they would be swallowed by the sea. The loss of these coral islands would be everyone’s loss. Coral formations are home to more species than any other place on earth.
       The people of these nations feel frustrated. The sea, on which their economies have always been based, is suddenly threatening their existence. They don’t have the money for expensive technological solutions like seawalls. And they have no control over the pollutants, which are being released mainly by activities in large industrialized countries. All they can do is to hope that industrialized countries will take steps to reduce pollution.
 
16.     The people of Kiribati worry that one day their country will be taken away by a sudden high tide.
A     Right              B     Wrong            C     Not mentioned
 
17.     High tides used to attack Kiribati when there was strong wind or heavy rain.
A     Right              B     Wrong            C     Not mentioned
 
18.     The heat released by burning oil and coal is the direct cause of global warming.
A     Right              B     Wrong            C     Not mentioned
 
19.     Scientists are not sure how serious the effects of global warming will be.
A     Right              B     Wrong            C     Not mentioned
 
20.     The coral island nations of the Pacific have a long history of civilization.
A     Right              B     Wrong            C     Not mentioned
 
21.     The people of the coral island nations are unable to do anything substanTIAl about the problem of global warming.
A     Right              B     Wrong            C     Not mentioned
 
22.     Some industrialized countries are unwilling to spend money in reducing pollution.
A     Right              B     Wrong            C     Not mentioned
 
第3部分:概括大意与完成句子 (第23—30题,每题1分,共8分)
       阅读下面这篇短文,短文后有2项测试任务:(1)第23—26题要求从所给的6个选项中为第2、3、5和6段每段选择1个正确的小标题;(2)第27—30题要求从所给的6个选项中选择4个正确选项,分别完成每个句子。请将答案涂在答题卡相应的位置上。
 

Robots

 
1           The most sophisticated(先进的)Japanese robots, which have vision systems and work at very high speeds, are still based on American designs. Studies of robots, particularly computer control software, are considered to be generally less advanced in Japan than in America or Europe.
2           Although industrial robots were originally developed as devices for simply handling objects, TODay their commonest uses are for more skilled work like welding (焊接), spray-painting and assembling components.
3           In Britain, robot sales appropriately peaked in 1984, but have been declining ever since. This is partly because British wage rates are too low to make robots financially attractive and partly because engineers now have more experience with robots and are more aware of the difficulties of introducing them effectively.
4           It has been calculated that a robot uses on average about 100 times more energy than a human to do an equivalent job.
5           It is estimated that 20% of all comic book heroes in Japan are robots. This is an enormous number because comics are so popular that they make up a third of all material published in Japan.
6           The reliability of robots is measured in their M.T.B.F. or mean time between failures. This has risen from about 250 hours in the mid-1970s to about 10,000 hours today (equivalent to working 18 hours a day for two years.) One way robot manufacturers have increased reliability is to test every single component they buy, instead of the normal procedure of just testing a small sample.
7           The biggest single benefit of introducing robots claimed by Japanese companies is that they increase quality control. Once programmed, the robots can work more accurately and consistently than humans, who can get tired and bored.
 

23.    
A     Ongoing Research
B     Extension of Use
C     Robot Heroes
D     Greater Reliability
E     Falling Demand
F     Hidden Danger
Paragraph 2 _____________

24.     Paragraph 3 _____________
25.     Paragraph 5 _____________
26.     Paragraph 6 _____________
 
 
27.     Even the most sophisticated Japanese robots are __________.
28.     Robots are less popular in Britain today partly because ________.
29.     One disadvantage of using robots is that they consume ___________.
30.     The use of robots increases ___________.
 
A  too much energy
B  based on American designs
C  they are too costly
D  they are not reliable
E  quality control
F  free of charge
 
 
第4部分:阅读理解(第31—45题,每题3分,共45分)
       下面有3篇短文,每篇短文后有5道题,每道题后面有4个选项。请根据文章的内容,从每题所给的4个选项中选择1个最佳答案,涂在答题卡相应的位置上。
 
第一篇                                                                          New Foods and the New World
 
In the last 500 years, nothing about people – not their clothes, ideas, or languages – has changed as much as what they eat. The original chocolate drink was made from the seeds of the coca tree (可可树)by South American Indians. The Spanish introduced it to the rest of the world during the 1500’s. And although it was very expensive, it quickly became fashionable. In London, shops where chocolate drinks were served became important meeting places. Some still exist today.
The potato is also from the New World. Around 1600, the Spanish brought it from Peru to Europe, where it soon was widely grown. Ireland became so dependent on it that thousands of Irish people starved when the crop failed during the “Potato Famine(饥荒)” of 1845-1846, and thousands more were forced to leave their homeland and move to America.
There are many other foods that have traveled from South America to the Old World. But some others went in the opposite direction. Brazil is now the world’s largest grower of coffee, and coffee is an important crop in Colombia and other South American countries. But it is native to Ethiopia, a country in Africa. It was first made into a drink by Arab during the 1400’s.
According to an Arabic legend, coffee was discovered when a person name Kaldi noticed that his goats were attracted to the red berries on a coffee bush. He tried one and experienced the “wide-awake” feeling that one-third of the world’s population now starts the day with.
 
31.     According to the passage, which of the following has changed the most in the last 500 years?
A.        Food
B.        Clothing
C.        Ideology.
D.       Language.
 
32.     “Some” in the last sentence of the first paragraph refers to
A.      some cocoa trees.
B.      some chocolate drinks.
C.      some shops.
D.     some south american indians.
 
33.     Thousands of Irish people starved during the “Potato Famine” because
A.        they were so dependent on potatoes that they refused to eat anything else.
B.        they were forced to leave their homeland and move to america.
C.        the weather conditions in ireland were not suitable for growing potatoes.
D.       the potato harvest was bad.
34.     Which country is the largest coffee producer?
A.        Brazil.
B.        Colombia.
C.        Ethiopia.
D.       Egypt.
 
35.     Which of the following statements is NOT true, according to the passage?
A.        One third of the world’s population drinks coffee.
B.        Coffee is native to Colombia.
C.        Coffee can keep one awake.
D.       Coffee drinks were first made by Arabs.
 
第二篇                                                              Please Fasten Your Seatbelts
 
Severe turbulence (湍流) can kill aircraft passengers. Now, in test flights over the Rocky Mountains, NASA (美国航空航天局) engineers have successfully detected clear-air turbulence up to 10 seconds before an aircraft hits it.
Clear-air turbulence often catches pilots by surprise. Invisible to radar, it is difficult to forecast and can hurl   (用力抛出去) passengers about the cabin. In December 1997, one passenger died and a hundred others were injured when unexpected rough air caused a United Airlines flight over the Pacific to drop 300 metres in a few seconds.
However, passengers can avoid serious injury by fastening their seatbelts. “It is the only antidote (对策) for this sort of things,” says Rod Bogue, project manager at NASA’s Dryden Flight Research Center in Edwards, California.
The centre’s new turbulence detector is based on lidar, or laser radar, Laser pulses are sent ahead of the plane and these are then reflected back by particles in the air. The technique depends on the Doppler effect. The wavelength of the light shifts according to the speed at which the particles are approaching. In calm air, the speed equals the plane’s airspeed. But as the particles swirl (打漩) in rough air, their speed of approach increases or decreases rapidly. The rate of change in speed corresponds to the severity (激烈程度) of the turbulence.
In a series of tests that began last month, a research jet flew repeatedly into disturbed air over the mountain ridges (山脉) near Pueblo, Colorado. The lidar detector spotted turbulence between 3 and 8 kilometres ahead, and its forecasts of strength and duration corresponded closely with the turbulence that the plane encountered.
Bogue says that he had “ a comfortable amount of time” to fasten his seatbelt. The researchers are planning to improve the lidar’s range with a more powerful beam. The system could be installed on commercial aircraft in the next few years.
 
36.     What does “clear-air turbulence” probably mean? (Paragraph 1)
A     A not very rough storm.
B     Unexpected disturbed air.
C     A kind of visible storm.
D     A storm over mountain ridges.
37.     In December 1997, a United Airlines flight hit unexpected rough air,
A     causing a lot of damage to the plane.
B     throwing its passengers out of the cabin.
C     resulting in heavy casualties.
D     forcing the pilot to make an emergency landing.
 
38.     The turbulence detector can tell the severity of the turbulence by measuring
A     the speed of the plane.
B     the speed of the light.
C     the number of particles in the air.
D     the changes of the particles’ speed.
 
39.     We can infer from the fifth paragraph that
A     the lidar detector can successfully forecast turbulence.
B     researchers are not sure about the effectiveness of the lidar detector.
C     passenger planes will be used in further experiments.
D     no more test flights are needed.
 
40.     The last paragraph tells us, among other things, that
A     the lidar detector needs improvement.
B     many airlines are interested in the system.
C     passengers often forget to fasten their seatbelts.
D     the lidar detector can be used in a wide range of areas.
 
 
第三篇                                                              “Salty” Rice Plant Boosts Harvests
 
British scientists are breeding a new generation of rice plants that will be able to grow in soil containing salt water. Their work may enable abandoned farms to become productive once more.
Tim Flowers and Tony Yeo, from Sussex University’s School of Biological Sciences, have spent several years researching how crops, such as rice, could be made to grow in water that has become salty.
The pair have recently begun a three-year programme, funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, to establish which genes enable some plants to survive salty conditions. The aim is to breed this capability into crops, starting with rice.
It is estimated that each year more than 100 hectares (公顷) of agricultural land are lost because salt gets into the soil and stunts (妨碍生长)plants. The problem is caused by several factors. In the tropics, mangroves (红树林) that create swamps (沼泽) and traditionally formed barriers to sea water have been cut down. In the Mediterranean, a series of droughts have caused the water table to drop, allowing sea water to seep (渗透) in. in Latin America, irrigation often causes problems when water is evaporated (蒸发) by the heat, leaving salt deposits behind.
Excess salt then enters the plants and prevents them functioning normally. Heavy concentrations of minerals in the plants stop them drawing up the water they need to survive.
To overcome these problems, Flowers and Yeo decided to breed rice plants that take in very little salt and store what they do absorb in cells that do not affect the plants’ growth. They have started to breed these characteristics into a new rice crop, but it will take about eight harvests before the resulting seeds are ready to be considered for commercial use.
Once the characteristics for surviving salty soil are known, Flowers and Yeo will try to breed the appropriate genes into all manners of crops and plants. Land that has been abandoned to nature will then be able to bloom again, providing much needed food in the poorer countries of the world.
 
41     Which of the following statements about Flowers and Yeo is true?
A     They are students at Sussex University.
B     They are rice breeders.
C     They are husband and wife
D     They are colleagues at an institution of higher learning.
 
42     Flowers and Yeo have started a programme
A     to find ways to prevent water pollution.
B     to identify genes that promote growth in salty soil.
C     to breed rice plants that taste salty.
D     to find ways to remove excessive salt from soil.
 
43     Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a cause of the problem discussed in the passage?
A     Natural barriers to sea water have been destroyed.
B     The water table has gone down after droughts.
C     Sea level has been continuously rising.
D     Evaporation of water leaves salt behind.
 
44     The word “affect” in Paragraph 6 could be best replaced by
A     “influence”
B     “effect”
C     “stop”
D     “present”
 
45     The attitude of the author towards the research project is
A     positive
B     negative.
C     suspicious
D     indifferent.
 
第5部分:补全短文(第46—50题,每题2分,共10分)
       阅读下面的短文,文章中有5处空白,文章后面有6组文字,请根据文章的内容选择5组文字,将其分别放回文章原有位置,以恢复文章原貌。请将答案涂在答题卡相应的位置上。
 

Looking into the Future

 
 
       Bertrand Russell, a famous philosopher, said in 1944, “The one thing the study of the past teaches us is that the future is never how people imagine it will be.”
       In 1946, physicists predicted that within twenty years, most of the world’s energy would be supplied by nuclear power. __________ (46) In 1951, a famous surgeon said that he and his colleagues were confident that “by the end of the 1950s, a cure for most if not all cancers will have been found.” In 1954, an American economist predicted Americans would go on getting richer and richer. ___________ (47).
       In the year 1969, an automation engineer working for Max Factor Cosmetics in Britain said that “within twenty or twenty-five years factories that today employ hundreds of workers will need only five or ten computer technicians to run them.” _____________ (48).
       In the early 1970s, there were many predictions that before the end of the century most homes in the United States, Europe and Japan would have computers in them. ___________ (49)
       Long before 1980, it was predicted that instead of letting nature and luck choose their children’s characteristics, people would have to decide which characteristics they wanted their children to inherit from them and previous generations in their families. ____________ (50) We may be able to have “undesirable” characteristics changed or destroyed through genetic therapy. Perhaps we may even begin to wish that Bertrand Russell was right when he said that history teaches us that the future is never like that future we imagine.
 
A     “By the end of the century,” he said, “there will be no poverty anywhere in the country.”
 
B     If this prediction comes true, we will be faced with a much greater responsibility than ever before.
 
C     According to the same predictions, this would result in “an information explosion” as well as “radical and revolutionary changes in the way we work, learn, and do business.”
 
D     When this prediction came true, more people would be killed than ever before.
 
E     They were certain that this would not only be “far cleaner than coal and other fossil fuels but far safer and much cheaper.”
 
F     He added that this “will lead to enormous social problems for unskilled manual workers in particular, who will be unable to find work.”
 
第6部分:完形填空  (第51—65题,每题1分,共15分)
       阅读下面的短文,文中有15处空白,每处空白给出了4个选项,请根据短文的内容从4个选项中选择1个最佳答案,涂在答题卡相应的位置上。
 

The American Family

 
       In the American family the husband and wife usually share important decision making. When the children are ___________ (51) enough, they take part as well. Foreigners are often surprised by the permissiveness (宽容) of American parents. The old rule that “children should be seen and not heard” is rarely _______ (52), and children are often allowed to do ____________ (53) they wish without strict control of their parents. The father seldom expects his children to listen to him __________ (54) question, and children are encouraged to be ______________ (55) at an early age. Some people believe that American parents carry this freedom _________ (56) far. Others think that a strong father image would not ____________ (57) the American values of equality and independence. Because Americans emphasize the importance of independence, young people are expected to _________ (58) their parental families by the time they have ________________ (59) their late teens or early twenties. Indeed, not to do so is often regarded as a ____________ (60), a kind of weak dependence.
       This pattern of independence often results in serious ____________ (61) for the aging parents of a small family. The average American is expected to live ___________ (62) the age of 70. The job-retirement age is _______ (63) 65. The children have left home, married, and ___________ (64) their own households. At least 20 percent of all people over 65 do not have enough retirement incomes. _________ (65) the major problem of many elderly couples is not economic. They feel useless and lonely with neither an occupation nor a close family group.
 
51
A senior
B junior
C old
D young
52
A watched
B followed
C understood
D grasped
53
A what
B that
C which
D when
54
A for
B on
C without
D in
55
A dependent
B independent
C sure
D secure
56
A too
B almost
C nearly
D so
57
A gain
B welcome
C suit
D estimate
58
A break up
B break into
C break through
D break away from
59
A reached
B come
C arrived
D developed
60
A reward
B criticism
C failure
D success
61
A events
B problems
C matters
D affairs
62
A on
B up
C from
D beyond
63
A only
B usually
C sometimes
D seldom
64
A set forth
B set aside
C set up
D set down
65
A But
B Therefore
C In contrast
D On the other hand
 
 
2003年职称英语等级考试
理工类(B级)答案
 
1.    B            2.    D            3.    A            4.    A            5.    B
6.    D            7.    C            8.    A            9.    A            10.   D
11.   A            12.   C            13.   C            14.   C            15.   D
16.   A            17.   A            18.   B            19.   B            20.   C
21.   A            22.   C            23.   B            24.   E            25.   C
26.   D            27.   B            28.   C            29.   A            30.   E
 
31.   A            32.   C            33.   D            34.   A            35.   B
36.   B            37.   C            38.   D            39.   A            40.   A
41.   D            42.   B            43.   C            44.   A            45.   A
 
46.   E            47.   A            48.   F            49.   C            50.   B
 
51.   C            52.   B            53.   A            54.   C            55.   B
56.   A            57.   C            58.   D            59.   A            60.   C
61.   B            62.   D            63.   B            64.   C            65.   A

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